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How to initiate and support continuous glucose monitoring

Nicola Milne
Eligibility for the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which includes both real-time and intermittently scanned devices, is increasing as national organisations such as NICE update their guidelines. This quick guide gives an overview of CGM for healthcare professionals working within primary care and signposts to further resources and reading.

The aim of the “How to” series is to provide readers with a guide to clinical procedures and aspects of diabetes care that are covered in the clinic setting.

Readers are directed to the PDF of this article.

Note: Article updated on 18 October 2022 to include more information on assessing hypoglycaemia.

REFERENCES:

1. Wilmot EG, Evans M, Barnard-Kelly K et al (2021) Flash glucose monitoring with the FreeStyle Libre 2 compared with self-monitoring of blood glucose in suboptimally controlled type 1 diabetes: the FLASH-UK randomised controlled trial protocol. BMJ Open 11: e050713

2. Lind M, Polonsky W, Hirsch IB et al (2017) Continuous glucose monitoring vs conventional therapy for glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections: the GOLD randomized clinical trial. JAMA 317: 379–87

3. DSN Forum UK (2022) Intermittent and real-time continuous glucose monitoring systems comparison chart. Available at: www.diabetes101.co.uk/infographics (accessed 26.09.22)

4. DVLA (2019) A guide to insulin treated diabetes and driving [INF294]. DVLA, Swansea. Available at: https://bit.ly/3CHRrnm (accessed 30.08.22)

5. Alkhatatbeh MJ, Abdalqader NA, Alqudah MAY (2019) Impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Diabetes Rev 15: 407–13

6. Alva S, Bailey T, Brazg R et al (2022) Accuracy of a 14-day factory-calibrated continuous glucose monitoring system with advanced algorithm in pediatric and adult population with diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol 16: 70–7

7. Shah VN, DuBose SN, Li Z et al (2019) Continuous glucose monitoring profiles in healthy nondiabetic participants: a multicenter prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 104: 4356–64

8. Battelino T, Danne T, Bergenstal RM et al (2019) Clinical targets for continuous glucose monitoring data interpretation: recommendations from the International Consensus on Time in Range. Diabetes Care 42: 1593–603

9. Beck RW, Riddlesworth TD, Ruedy K et al; DIAMOND Study Group (2017) Continuous glucose monitoring versus usual care in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving multiple daily insulin injections: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 167: 365–74

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