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The two case studies presented here provide an overview of gestational diabetes (GDM). The scenarios cover the screening, identification and management of GDM, as well as the steps that should be taken to screen for, and ideally prevent, development of type 2 diabetes in the long term post-pregnancy. By actively engaging with the case studies, readers will feel more confident and empowered to manage GDM effectively in the future.

Useful resources

At a glance factsheet: Diabetes before, during and after pregnancy. Diabetes & Primary Care 23: 73–4



Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Williams D (2009) Type 2 diabetes mellitus after gestational diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet 373: 1773–9

Catalano PM (2014) Trying to understand gestational diabetes. Diabet Med 31: 273–81

ElSayed NA, Aleppo G, Aroda VR et al; American Diabetes Association (2023a) 2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Care in Diabetes–2023. Diabetes Care 46(Suppl 1): S19–40

ElSayed NA, Aleppo G, Aroda VR et al; American Diabetes Association (2023b) 15. Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy: Standards of Care in Diabetes–2023. Diabetes Care 46(Suppl 1): S254–66

Horvath K, Koch K, Jeitler K et al (2010) Effects of treatment in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 340: c1395

Iftakhar R (2012) Benefit of metformin in reducing weight gain and insulin requirements in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes. Diabesity in Practice 3: 108–13

Knowler WC, Barrett-Connor E, Fowler SE et al; Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2002) Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin. N Engl J Med 346: 393–403

Lindström J, Louheranta A, Mannelin M et al; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group (2003) The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS): Lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 26: 3230–6

McGovern A, Butler L, Munro M, de Lusignan S (2014) Gestational diabetes mellitus follow-up in primary care: A missed opportunity. Diabetes & Primary Care 16: 60

Meltzer SJ (2010) Treatment of gestational diabetes. BMJ 340: c1708

NICE (2017) Type 2 diabetes: prevention in people at high risk [PH38]. Available at:

NICE (2020) Diabetes in pregnancy: management from preconception to the postnatal period [NG3]. Available at:

NICE (2022) Type 2 diabetes in adults: management [NG28]. Available at:

Noctor E, Dunne F (2017) A practical guide to pregnancy complicated by diabetes. Diabetes & Primary Care 19: 35–4

Rowan JA, Hague WM, Gao W et al; MiG Trial Investigators (2008) Metformin versus insulin for the treatment of gestational diabetes. N Engl J Med 358: 2003–15

Silverman BL, Rizzo TA, Cho NH, Metzger BE (1998) Long-term effects of the intrauterine environment. The Northwestern University Diabetes in Pregnancy Center. Diabetes Care 21(Suppl 2): B142–9

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