The health benefits of a low-gluten or gluten-free diet in people without coeliac disease or gluten intolerance have been called into question after a study suggested that they may increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
In a study of nearly 200 000 US healthcare professionals, those in the bottom quintile for gluten intake were 13% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes, after adjustment for exercise habits, weight, typical calorie intake and family history of diabetes. However, the results were presented at a meeting and should be viewed as preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal.
The Telegraph, 9 March 2017
Poor diet linked to half of deaths from cardiometabolic disease
A large US study suggests that almost half of all deaths from heart disease, stroke and diabetes in 2012 could be attributed to eating either too much or too little of 10 types of food.
Dietary elements consumed in excess included sodium (responsible for 9.5% of cardiometabolic deaths), processed meat (8.2%) and sugar-sweetened drinks (7.4%). Foods consumed in insufficient amounts included nuts and seeds (8.5% of deaths), seafood-based omega-3 fats (7.8%), vegetables (7.6%) and fruits (7.5%).
Men, younger people and non-white people were at greater risk.
Reuters, 7 March 2017
Type 2 diabetes numbers have trebled in 20 years
The number of people in the UK diagnosed with type 2 diabetes has trebled from around 700 000 to 2.8 million over the last 20 years, according to a study of GP data. This represents an increase in prevalence from 1.32% in 1991 to 4.54% in 2013.
However, more positively, survival rates have also increased, likely owing to earlier diagnosis and improvements in control of HbA1c, blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Estimated median survival times increased from 14 years in 1991 to 22 years in 2009, with all-cause mortality risk 67% lower in 2013 compared with 1991.
BBC News, 15 March 2017
World’s youngest child receives umbilical cord blood to prevent type 1 diabetes onset
Twenty-month-old Lucy Hinchion has become the world’s youngest child to be reinfused with her own umbilical cord blood in an attempt to prevent or delay the onset of type 1 diabetes.
Lucy underwent the infusion as part of the CORD (Cord Reinfusion in Diabetes) study, which is investigating the hypothesis that administering stored cord blood to children with a family history of type 1 diabetes delays or prevents the onset of the condition.
The study is expected to take 5 years to complete, and approximately 100 participants have been recruited so far.
Diabetes.co.uk, 9 January 2017
Putting on just half a stone in a decade raises diabetes risk
A large prospective study suggests that gaining as little as 7 pounds over the course of a decade can increase the risk of type 2 diabetes by 50%.
The study, published in BMC Public Health, followed 33 184 participants from Sweden, aged 30–60 years, with a baseline BMI of 25 kg/m2. Compared with weight maintenance, weight gain of 1 kg/m2 was associated with an increased risk of incident diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 1.52), while weight loss of 1–2 kg/m2 was associated with a risk reduction (OR, 0.72).
The results suggest that, if everyone aged 30 to 60 maintained their weight, one in five cases of type 2 diabetes could be prevented.
Daily Mail, 7 February 2017
Pilot intervention “reverses” type 2 diabetes after 16 weeks
An intervention involving intensive diet, lifestyle and drug therapy, piloted in 83 people with type 2 diabetes, restored normoglycaemia in 70% after 16 weeks, with benefits maintained in 40% 12 weeks after completion.
The treatment plan involved a personalised exercise regimen, a diet with a 500–750-kcal/day deficit and medication with metformin, acarbose and insulin glargine. It is designed to quickly reduce visceral fat levels while the early drug treatment aims to “kick-start the pancreas”, although the latter hypothesis is controversial.
The Telegraph, 15 March 2017