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These three scenarios review the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, along with glycaemic management, in people with type 2 diabetes.

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Adler AI, Coleman RL, Leal J et al (2024) Post-trial monitoring of a randomised controlled trial of intensive glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes extended from 10 years to 24 years (UKPDS 91). Lancet 17 May [Epub ahead of print].

Bakhai C (2023) Overview of the NHS Type 2 Diabetes Path to Remission Programme. Diabetes & Primary Care 25: 105–6

Cannon CP, Pratley R, Dagogo-Jack S et al; VERTIS CV investigators. Cardiovascular outcomes with ertugliflozin in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 383: 1425–35

Davies MJ, Aroda VR, Collins BS et al (2022) Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes, 2022. A consensus report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). Diabetologia 65: 1925–66

Dormandy JA, Charbonnel B, Eckland DJ et al; PROactive investigators (2005) Secondary prevention of macrovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes in the PROactive Study (PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events): A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 366: 1279–89

Gerstein HC, Colhoun HM, Dagenais GR et al; REWIND investigators (2019) Dulaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes (REWIND): A double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 394: 121–30

Heerspink HJL, Stefánsson BV, Correa-Rotter R et al; DAPA-CKD trial committees and investigators (2020) Dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 383: 1436–46

Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K et al; LEADER trial investigators (2016a) Liraglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 375: 311–22

Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A et al; SUSTAIN-6 investigators (2016b) Semaglutide and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 375: 1834–44

Nauck MA, Meier JJ, Cavender MA et al (2017) Cardiovascular actions and clinical outcomes with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors. Circulation 136: 849–70

Neal B, Perkovic V, Mahaffey KW et al (2017); CANVAS Program Collaborative Group (2017) Canagliflozin and cardiovascular and renal events in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 377: 644–57

NICE (2016a) Recent-onset chest pain of suspected cardiac origin: assessment and diagnosis [CG95]. Available at:

NICE (2016b) Stable angina: management [CG126]. Available at:

NICE (2022) Type 2 diabetes in adults: management [NG28]. Available at:

NICE (2023a) Cardiovascular disease: risk assessment and reduction, including lipid modification [NG238]. Available at:

NICE (2023b) Hypertension in adults: diagnosis and management [NG136]. Available at:

Wiviott SD, Raz I, Bonaca MP et al; DECLARE–TIMI 58 investigators (2019) Dapagliflozin and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 380: 347–57

Zinman B, Wanner C, Lachin JM et al; EMPA-REG OUTCOME investigators (2015). Empagliflozin, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 373: 2117–28

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